Factor 3: the state of current scientific knowledge regarding the drug or other substance
In this part of the study, attention is shifted to how kratom is actually ingested. The author stresses the low potential for abuse due because of the way its ingested.
Kratom leaves and crushed or powdered leaves are readily available on the internet and in stores in most states, but this material is not reported to be used by nasal insufflation, smoking, or intravenously (in contrast to opioids and stimulants that are commonly used by such diverse routes to speed absorption and intensify their effects).
In addition to the apparently low potential to produce strong effects sought by persons who abuse drugs, the physical nature of the leaf material with its high ratio of cellulose fiber likely deters use by such routes because large amounts of material would need to be placed in the nose or smoked to produce effects.
By analogy, caffeinated products are also not reportedly used by injection, smoking, or snorting likely in part because although some cocaine-like effects are possible when caffeine is given by injection, it is not a comparable euphoriant and is preferred by the oral route (Rush et al. 1995; Garrett and Griffiths 2001).
Kratom effects are usually within an hour and lasts 3.5 to 2.5 hours for MG and 7-OH-MG respectively… good to know.
Now, for one of the more important points in the study, where the makes the obvious statement, but does so in a nonchalant way.
In the case of kratom, which is marketed and used virtually exclusively in forms for oral ingestion, it seems reasonable to conclude that the physiochemical properties contribute to the relative safety and low abuse profile as compared to prototypic opioids and cocaine-like stimulants.
This part of the study solidifies and emphasizes that kratom, on a manageable scale is a safe plant to consume.